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Structure and classification of lathes in mechanical processing

Đăng bởi noidung - 16:04 11/05/2022

Structure and classification of lathes in mechanical processing
Mechanical lathe is a type of machine used to process and cut the surface of the material to be processed. Lathes play an important role in mechanical processing. Turning machining is commonly used in the manufacturing industry of machine parts for the mechanical industry. Turning is performed by relying on the movement of the workpiece to rotate around the tool to form a cutting motion combined with the reciprocating motion of the turning tool. Currently, mechanical lathes are made easier when used in conjunction with CNC turning technology.
Learn about mechanical lathes
Mechanical lathe is a mechanical processing technique that works by being influenced by the rotating workpiece to create cutting movements on the surface of the cutting material. The cutting material will be combined with the forward motion of the tool, which is called the combination of two longitudinal infeed movements Sd and transverse infeed Sng. During the turning process, the axis will have the task of moving the horizontal infeed Sng = 0 and moving the longitudinal infeed ≠ 0.
Lathes are a type of machine commonly used in mechanical processing used in mechanical workshops from small to large. Today, people have applied CNC lathes to operate based on intelligent computer control systems. Using this modern technology, CNC lathes have created many outstanding advantages over other traditional machines, thereby helping to improve labor efficiency and reduce production costs. CNC precision machining lathe has become one of the devices that contribute to changing the type of industrial production.
Structure of a lathe for mechanical processing
Lathes are made up of many different parts. Each part that makes up the machine has its own characteristics and has different roles to ensure the smooth running of the lathe. Here are the main parts as follows:
Electric motor
As a very important part in the whole machine design, it plays the role of starting the machine. Usually, this type of motor will use power sources such as 110V, 120V, 220V, etc. The older the lathe, the larger the power it uses.
The electrical switch of this electric motor is designed to be located right next to the insulated conductor. With such an arrangement, the electric motor can be easily opened and closed during use.
Chuck
This is the part that is mounted by the manufacturer at the two ends of the pipe and it is designed in pairs. The use of this part is to clamp the workpiece when it is put into the lathe. During use, the operator can easily change the distance between the clamping elements on the side. From there, you can easily change the lathe when the input material is too large or too small compared to the original size.
Machine mold
It is an integral part of the lathe structure. This part is used to form threads into the ends of metal workpiece materials. This unit is also equipped with a sharp cutting blade, helping to achieve the desired cut that the user wants to turn.
Concentric shaft
This part is shaped like a drill bit. The main use of this part is to hold the metal workpiece in a fixed position, making the turning process accurate and the workpiece not moving out of the cutting line.
Cutter and control arm
Both of these parts have a control system to remove excess metal workpieces. The cutting machine is processed at high temperature, the machining time is also quite fast but still has high aesthetics.
Types of lathes for mechanical processing
There are many types of mechanical lathes on the market today. Below is information on some common types of machines as follows:
Universal lathes
This type of lathe has the earliest history and is most commonly used today.
This series of machines includes two groups: smooth lathes and screw thread lathes.
Universal lathes are manufactured with different sizes such as: 500kg; 4 tons; 15 tons; 400 tons.
This machine adopts structural drive with lead screw or without lead screw.
Universal lathe is used to process outer cylindrical surface, outer taper, inner screw thread, inner taper, inner cylinder face.
Specialized lathes
Lathe is a type of lathe used to process a few types of parts such as: backcut lathe, precision thread lathe, crankshaft lathe, rail wheel lathe, etc.
Copy Lathe
This type of machine is equipped with copying mechanisms to serve the processing of patterned details according to the design. This type of lathe usually uses a smooth shaft drive.
Shortcut Lathe
This lathe is used in processing large diameter parts such as pulleys, gears, steering wheels. Or used to process heavy parts with large diameter such as flywheel, belt wheel. This type of machine is equipped with a chuck with a very large size, when moving there is only 1 smooth shaft.
Vertical lathe
It is a lathe with a vertical spindle. Used in processing heavy, complex and difficult parts.
CNC machine
This lathe is considered the most modern of all lathes today. CNC lathes operate based on automatic computer control. When using this type of machine, regardless of the skill of the worker, the product created has a very high aesthetic value and a beautiful cut.
CNC lathes are divided into many different types such as: 2-axis, 3-axis CNC lathes or CNC lathes equipped with additional milling shafts, CNC lathes with 2 chucks.
Above are some of our shares about mechanical lathes. Hopefully, through this article, you have gained more knowledge about the lathes in use today.

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