Overview of working principles of lathes in mechanical processing

Đăng bởi noidung - 10:37 14/05/2022

Overview of working principles of lathes in mechanical processing
CNC lathe is a mechanical lathe system that is controlled and programmed by a computer to help manipulate workpieces with high accuracy.
Currently, CNC technology is very popularly applied in the mechanical processing industry. Because they help create finished products with extremely high accuracy. And one of the most used forms of machining today is CNC turning. Therefore, in this article, Cosmo Vietnam will share with you all the knowledge about CNC lathes as well as their operating principles in the mechanical processing machine system.
What is a CNC lathe?
Before learning about CNC lathes, let’s learn about the concept of turning in mechanical machining first.
– Turning, also known as the method of cutting metal with workpieces. This method is implemented based on the movement of the workpiece and the turning tool.
– CNC lathe belongs to the mechanical processing machine transmission system. All operations on the workpiece are controlled and programmed by the machine. However, CNC lathes have the same structure as conventional lathes and are mainly used to manufacture rotating parts.
– Lathes are usually divided into 2 types: wood cnc lathes and metal cnc lathes.
After understanding the concept of a CNC lathe, in the next part of the article we will continue to learn about the structure of the machine.
Structure of CNC lathe
To understand the operating principle of a CNC lathe, you need to understand the structure of the machine. The overall structure of a CNC machine includes the following parts:
– Machine control unit
– Each shaft is designed with a separate motor
– Computer table
– Knife, knife head
– Cooling system
– For older machines, there will be an additional hydraulic system.
Today, in this article, we will introduce you to the basic structure of a 3-axis CNC milling machine, including the following parts:
– Machine frame, protective shielding system
– System table, chuck, mounting bracket.
– Knife tray system, automatic tool change
– Knife head, all kinds of knives
– Water or gas cooling system, gas clamp.
– Control system, connected to the computer.
Working mechanism of CNC lathe
CNC lathes operate based on the control mechanism of the circular motion of the workpiece and the principle of tool motion control. Using the main movement is:
– Rotational movement of the workpiece,
– Feed movements are horizontal, longitudinal movements of the machine belt.

The workpiece lathe is mounted on the chuck (usually people will use the 3-pin self-centering or 4-spoke type). For workpieces that have a large length in the range of 200 or more, they will often be used to support the center to help improve rigidity with the center support head located on the floating dock. The mind head is also divided into two types: the static mind and the dynamic mind.
– The rotation of the main shaft (of the workpiece) is the movement of the chuck according to the following diagram:
Motor – Gearbox – Chuck
The engine of a lathe (mechanical lathe) is usually located under the base behind the machine. Depending on the type of machine used, the motor will also have different speeds. The rotation of the motor is transmitted to the reducer by a belt drive. The movement out of the chuck has different speeds because in the reducer there are gear assemblies that can be matched in pairs. You will select the speed using the speed levers above the speed board.
– The movement of the tool is the movement of the tool table according to the following diagram:
Motor – Reducer – Transmission shaft – Knife table.
The principle of motion and speed of the carriage is similar to that of the main shaft. The motor, in addition to providing rotation for the main shaft, also provides movements for the tool table thanks to the gears that divide the movement and levels in the speed box. Since the carriage is far from the speed box and has to move flexibly in both longitudinal and transverse directions of the machine, it uses longitudinal and transverse shaft drives. The leveling of the carriage is adjusted by the gears in the level box. The movement speed selection tables, movement are mounted on the body of the level box.
Above is an article about the operating principle of a CNC lathe. We hope that this article will be useful to you.

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